Chapter 4 Agriculture Notes Class 10th CBSE



The word 'Agriculture' means land cultivation. It includes the raising of crops, animal husbandry, forestry, pisciculture, etc.

Types of farming:-

(i) Primitive Subsistence Farming:-

This type of farming is still practiced in a few pockets of India.


(a) It is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao, etc. 

(b) All family members of farmers are involved in such agriculture.

(c) It depends on monsoon rain for irrigation.

(d) No modern techniques, chemical fertilizers, and HYV seeds are utilized.

(e) It is migratory in nature in which farmers shift to a new patch of land when no fertility of agricultural land gets exhausted.

'Slash and Burn Agriculture' or Shifting Agriculture or 'Jhumming':-

It is a type of primitive subsistence farming in which farmers clear a piece of forested land by burning and cutting off trees or shrubs and utilizing the piece of land for cultivation.

Slash and Burn Agriculture


Same as primitive subsistence farming.

(ii) Intensive Subsistence Farming:-

 In such farming, farmers are generally engaged to produce cereals. 


i) It is generally practiced in areas of high population pressure on land. 

ii) It is a labor-intensive farming. 

iii) The land holdings are small and scattered.

iv) High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.

v) Maximum use of minimum Land is the main feature of this farming. 

vi) Mainly the food crops are grown by the farmers. 

(iii) Commercial Farming:-


i) Main purpose of this agriculture is to sell the products for money. 

ii) HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides are used on large scale. 

iii) New techniques and implements are widely used. 

iv) The main crops are cotton, wheat, sugar cane, jute, etc. 

v) Such farming is performed by machines as well as manpower. 

vi) The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from one region to another.

Plantation Agriculture:-

It is also a type of commercial farming.


i) In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area. 

ii) It is a capital-centered agriculture that needs good managerial ability, technical support, irrigation facilities, transport and communication facilities, and cheap labour.

iii) It requires a long growing period and a processing unit.

iv) The main crops are tea, coffee, rubber, banana, etc. 

v) It has an interface between agriculture and industry. 

vi) It is done mainly in Assam, Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal, Maharashtra, etc.

Cropping season:-

India has three cropping seasons- Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid.

(i) Rabi season:- 

Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. The main crops of this season are wheat, barley, peas, grams, rapeseed, and mustard.

(ii) Kharif season:- 

Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon and harvested in September-October. The main crops of the season are paddy, maize, Jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut, and soyabean. 

(iii) Zaid season:- 

Zaid crops are grown between April and June. The main crops of this season are watermelon, muskmelon, vegetables, and fodder crops.

Major Crops:-

Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millet, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, and jute, etc.

i) Rice:-

It is a Kharif crop sown during the rainy season and harvested in September and October. 

Condition Required:-

It is a tropical crop that requires high humidity and high temperature.

Temperature - above 25°C 

Annual Rainfall - above 100cm

Soil - Alluvial Clayey Soils

A large number of manual labours are also required.

Distribution of Rice


In India, rice is mainly grown in the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas, and deltaic regions. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu, and Punjab are the major producers.

Note:-  (i) India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. 

            (ii) It is also grown in dry areas, where irrigation facilities are available.  

ii) Wheat:- 

It is a rabi crop and the second most important cereal crop in India.

Conditions Required:-

Temperature - 10°C to 15°  during the growth and  20° to 25°  with bright sunshine during ripening.

Annual Rainfall - 50 to 75 cm 

Soil - Alluvial, Loamy, and black soils.

Irrigation - It requires irrigation from time to time.

Distribution of Wheat


 The Ganga-Sutlej plains, the northwest and black soil region of Deccan are two main wheat-producing zones in India. U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, M.P., and Bihar are the main producers.

iii) Sugarcane:-

it is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop.

Conditions Required:-

Temperature - 21°C to 27°C 

Annual Rainfall - 75 cm to 100 cm 

Soil - Alluvial & black soil 

A large number of manual labours are also required.


U.P., Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, and Haryana are the major producers.

Note- (i) India is the second largest producer of sugarcane only after Brazil.

iv) Tea:-  (example of plantation)

The tea plant grows well in tropical and subtropical climates. It is an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by Britishers.

Condition Required:-

Temperature - 24°C to 35°C but 25°C is ideal

Rainfall - 150cm to 200 cm 

Soil - Deep and Fertile, well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter

Other - (i) Frost is injurious to this plant.

            (ii) it is a labour-intensive agriculture, that requires cheap and skilled labour.


Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura, etc. are the major producers. 

Note-  India is the leading producer as well as exporter of tea in the world.

v) Coffee:- 

India is the producer of an Arabic variety of coffee. This variety is in great demand all over the world. 

Conditions Required:-

Temperature -15°C to 28°C 

Rainfall - 150 cm to 200 cm 

Soil - Laterite soil, and well-drained volcanic Loamy soil.


Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu are the leading producers. 

Note -  India produces about 4% of the world's coffee production.


 vi) Cotton:-

It is a Kharif crop grown in the dryer parts of the black soil region. It requires 210 frost-free days with bright sunshine. It also requires proper irrigation.

Condition  Required:-

Temperature - 21° to 32° Celcius 

Rainfall - 50 cm to 120 cm 

Soil - Black soil and light well-drained Alluvial soil


Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, etc are the major producers.

vii) Jute:-

It is a Kharif crop and is also known as the golden fiber. It is used for making gunny bags, ropes, mats, carpets, yarn, etc. 

Conditions Required:-

Temperature - 21° to 35°C

Rainfall - 150 cm to 250 cm

Soil - Khadar Alluvial soil


West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, and Meghalaya, are the major producers.

viii) Rubber:-

It is an equatorial crop, grown in tropical and subtropical areas. India ranks fourth among the world's natural rubber producers. 

Conditions Required:-

Temperature - above 25°C 

Rainfall - more than 200 cm 

Soil - Fertile, well-drained soils and flat or gently undulating land.


Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman Nicobar Islands, and Meghalaya are major producers.  

Technological and Institutional Reform:-

i) Technological Reforms:-

For the improvement of agricultural yield, new techniques and equipments have been introduced in the last few years in Indian agriculture. Some of them are as follows:-

(i) Use of modern machines, like tractors, threshers, harvesters, etc. to do the farmwork at fast Speed.

(ii) Use of water pumps and tube-wells for irrigation.

(iii) Drip irrigation and sprinklers are also used for irrigation in dry areas and undulating land. 

(iv) Chemical fertilizers, bio-fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, etc. are widely used.

(v) HYV seeds were introduced.

(vi) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and television.

ii) Institutional reforms:-

(i) Consolidation of small land or 'Chak Bandi' to convert them into big ones.

(ii) Abolition of the Zamindari system. 

(iii) Provision of crop insurance during natural Calamities.

(iv) Establishment of Gramin banks (rural banking system), cooperative societies, etc. to provide cheap loans to the farmers. 

(v) A comprehensive land development program was initiated. 

(vi) Kisan credit card (KCC), and personal accident insurance scheme (PAIS) are also introduced by the government for benefit of the farmers.

(vii) Announcement of minimum support price for the crops.

Problems faced by Indian farmers:-

(i) International competition.

(ii) Reduction in public investment.

(iii) Decreasing subsidy on fertilizers.

(iv) Reduction in import duties on agricultural products. 

(v) Withdrawl of investment by the farmers. 

(vi) Lack of capital and suicides of farmers.


Green Revolution:-

The spectacular increase in food grain production in India was brought about by the use of HYV seeds, adequate irrigation water, and chemical fertilizers is called the Green Revolution. 


(i) To increase the production of food grains.

(ii) To bring more land under farming.

(iii) To utilize modern techniques and equipment.

(iv) To produce better irrigation facilities. 

(v) To develop and use HYV seeds.

Q. Why Green Revolution has got successful in the north-western part of India? 

(i) Suitable climate and Loamy soil.

(ii) Better irrigation facility. 

(iii) Consolidation of small land holdings into viable economic units.

(iv) Farm mechanization.

(v) Hard-working farmers and the steps taken by the governments (Central and state).