CBSE Class 10 Geography Notes (Resource and Development)


Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as resources.

Characteristics of Resources:-

  1. They have utility.
  2. Most of them are limited in quantity and supply.
  3. Their development depends upon the knowledge of man, his scientific temperament and the level of technology.
  4. They make our lives possible and comfortable. 
  5. Their values change with changes in technology, space and time.
  6. A single resource can be utilized for various purposes. For ex: Soil is used for agriculture, making pots, bricks, etc.

Classification of Resources:-

Classification of Resources on various basis:-

1. On the basis of Origin:-

  • Biotic Resources -- The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic resources. for example- plants, animals.
  • Abiotic Resources -- The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. For example- land, air, water, etc.

2. On the basis of Exhaustibility:-

  • Renewable Resources --  Resources that can be replenished after a short period of time are called Renewable Resources. For example- solar energy, forest, etc.
  • Non-Renewable Resources -- Resources which takes million years of time to replenish are called non-renewable resources. For example- Minerals, fossil fuels, etc.

3. On the basis of Ownership:-

  • Individual Resources -- Resources owned by individuals are called Individual Resources. For example- plots, houses, etc.
  • Community-owned Resources -- Resources owned by community or society are called Community Owned ResourcesFor example-Burial ground, public parks, etc.
  • National Resources --  Resources owned by Individual Nations are called National ResourcesFor example- Forests, Wildlife, etc.
  • International Resources -- Resources regulate by International bodies are called International Resources. For example- The oceanic resources beyond 2000 nautical miles of the EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONES belong to open ocean.

4. On the basis of the status development:-

  • Potential Resources -- Potential resources are those which are found in a region, but have not been utilized. For example, solar energy and wind energy, available in Rajasthan and Gujarat, have not been developed properly.
  • Developed Resources -- Developed resources are those which are estimated in terms of their quantity and quality for utilization, e.g., water, soil, forests.
  • Stock Resources -- Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but are not technologically accessible to human beings, e.g., use of water as a rich source of energy.
  • Reserve Resources -- Reserve is a part of the stock which can be put to use in the near future with the help of existing technology, e.g., water in dams, forests.

Resource Planning:-

Planning is a widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. It has importance in a country like India, which has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are some regions which can be considered as self-sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have an acute shortage of some vital resources. 

Resource Planning in India:-

Resource Planning is a complex process which involves the following stages:
  1. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of resources.
  2. Evolving of Planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
  3. Matching resource development with overall national development.
India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning from the First Five Years Plan.

Conservation of Resources:-

Careful utilization and management of resources by man for sustainable development are called conservation of resources.
                      Irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important. We must use resources judiciously and in a proper manner. It not only fulfils our present-day demand but also benefits future generations.
                      Nowadays planners are emphasizing over sustainable development. Sustainable economic development means " development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.

Therefore, to maintain the rate of development and to preserve the environment it is essential that we should:-

  • use all the renewable resources in a sustainable manner.
  • minimize the depletion of natural resources.
  • conserve the varied species of living organisms.
  • do not cause any harm to the natural environment.
  • enable communities to care for their own environment.

Land Resources:-

The land is considered as an important resource because it provides the soil for agriculture, minerals, underground water, etc.

Land under a  variety of Relief Features(India):-

  • About 43% of the land area is plain.
  • About 30% of the total surface area of the country is under mountains.
  • About 27% of the area of the country is the plateau region.

Land use pattern in India:-

  1. Forest:- 22.78% of the land is under forest cover. It is a disturbing feature of the land use pattern because it should be 33.33% of the total area.
  2. Land not available for cultivation:- It includes Barren and wasteland and land put to non-agricultural uses. The percentage of this category is very high, so, this may be utilized for various purposes.
  3. Other Uncultivated Land:- It included pasture land, land under tree crops and groves and unculturable waste land excluding fallow land. The pasture land is only 3.38% which is a disturbing feature of land use pattern.
  4. Fallow Land:- The percentage of fallow land is about 8.1%. This land may be utilized during the rainy season or when the irrigation facilities made available.
  5. Net Sown Area:- Area sown only one time in a year is called Net Sown Area. Its percentage is 46.24%. It is a satisfying feature of land use pattern in India.

Net Sown Area
Gross Sown Area
The land under the cultivation at least only one time in a year is called Net Sown Area. The Net Sown Area plus(+) the area sowed more than once in a year is called Gross Sown Area.
Net Sown Area is smaller than the gross sown area. Gross Sown Area is larger than the net sown area.

Land Degradation:-

The reduct of the quality of land is called land degradation.

  • Deforestation 
  • Degradation by mining 
  • Improper farming technique 
  • Degradation by effluents of industries
  • Degradation by flood 
  • Overgrazing by animals
Reclamation and Conservation:-
  • by afforestation 
  • by checking the open cast mining 
  • by proper farming techniques
  • by proper discharge and disposal  of industrial effluents and waste after treatment
  • by making the dams and reservoirs to check the flood 
  • control on overgrazing 

Soil as a Resources:-

Soil is the most important renewable natural resources. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of the living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few centimetres in depth. Relief, parent roots or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and the time are important factors in the formation of soil.

Classification of Soils:-

On the basis of genesis, colour, composition and location, the soils of India have been classified into:-
  • Alluvial Soils:-    a) Khadar(new alluvial)
                                      b) Bangar( old alluvial)
  • Black Soil 
  • Laterite Soil 
  • Red and Yellow Soil
  • Arid Soil
  • Forest Soil

1. Alluvial Soil:-

They are depositional soils, transported and deposited by rivers and streams.


  • The colour of the alluvial soils varies from the light grey to ash grey.
  • It consists of various proportions of sand, silts and clay.
  • These soils contain an adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
  • They lack in phosphorus.
  • Alluvial soils are very fertile and are intensively cultivated.


The alluvial soils are mainly found in the northern plain as well as in the eastern coastal plains, particularly in the deltas. Punjab, Haryana, U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, etc. are the main states having alluvial soils.

Major crops grown:-

Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, oilseeds, pulses, etc.

It is a new alluvial soil. It is an old alluvial soil.
It is more fertile.
It is less fertile.
It is found near the river banks, flood plains and deltas.
It is found far away from the river banks.
It is renewed frequently.
It is not renewed frequently.

2. Black Soil:-

These soils are also known as the "Regular Soil" or the "Black Cotton Soil".


  • These soils are black in colour.
  • They are rich in Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium, Potash and Lime.
  • They lack in phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic matter.
  • They swell and become sticky when wet.
  • They develop deep cracks during hot weather.
  • They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.


Black Soil covers most of the Deccan plateau which includes parts of Maharashtra, M.P., Gujrat, Andhra Pradesh, etc.

Major crops grown:-

Cotton, Wheat, Sugarcane, Tobacco, etc.

3. Red and Yellow Soil:-
Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau.


  • These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
  • It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
  • The fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils are poor in fertility.
  • They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus but fairly rich in potash.


They are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Chattisgarh, parts of Odisha, etc.

Major crops grown:-

Millets, Cotton, Pulses, etc.

4. Laterite Soil:-
The Laterite Soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain.


  • It is rich in iron oxide and potash.
  • It is poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium.
  • It is widely cut as bricks for use in house construction.
  • It is suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.


    It is mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, M.P., and hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.

    Major crops grown:-

    Tea, Coffee, Cashewnut, etc.

    5. Arid Soil:-


    • Arid Soils range from red to brown in colour.
    • They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
    • They are rich in Calcium Carbonate, Gypsum and Sodium.
    • They lack moisture and humus.
    • Nitrogen is insufficient and phosphate content is normal.


    They are found in Western Rajasthan, Soth-WEst Punjab and Haryana.

    Major crops grown:-

    Where irrigation facility is developed, millets (Jowar and Bajra) and vegetables are grown.

    6. Forest Soil:-


    • The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed.
    • They are rich in organic matter and humus.
    • They are poor in potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
    • They are loamy and silty in valley side and coarse grain in the upper slopes.
    • In the snow-covered areas of the Himalayas, these soil experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
    • The soils found in the lower valleys are fertile.


    They are found in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, parts of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, etc.

    Major crops grown:-

    Fruits, tea, medicinal plants, etc.

    Soil Erosion:-

    The destruction of the soil cover is described as soil erosion.


    They are two types of soil erosion.

    i) Sheet erosion:- 

    Some times water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases, the topsoil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.

    ii) Gully erosion:- 

    In such erosion, the running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies. The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. It is common on steep slopes.

    Causes of Soil Erosion:-

    i) Deforestation
    ii) Overgrazing
    iii) Unscientific farming method
    iv) Over irrigation
    v) By mining
    vi) By physical factors including the slope of the land, the intensity of rainfall and velocity of the wind.

    Measure to control Soil Erosion:-

    i) Afforestation
    ii) Ban on overgrazing
    iii) By contour ploughing
    iv) By terrace farming
    v) By strip cropping
    vi) By mulching
    vii) By bunding the fields
    viii) By constructing dams
    ix) Crop rotation